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Archaeologists

Israel Archaeology’s Pioneers, Currently Active and the Next Generation of Researchers and Teachers.
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Alt, Albrecht Image
Alt, Albrecht
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: German Protestant Institute of Archaeology
Bate, Dorothea Image
Bate, Dorothea
Category: Pre-1948
Historical Research Focus: Early Paleolithic 150000 BC – 80000 BC
Bliss, Frederick J. Image
Bliss, Frederick J.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Material Composition: Pottery
Crowfoot, John Winter Image
Crowfoot, John Winter
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Sebastiya
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Building Types: Church
Material Composition: Ceramics
De Saulcy, F. Image
De Saulcy, F.
Category: Pre-1948
Garstang, John Image
Garstang, John
Category: Pre-1948
Grove, George Image
Grove, George
Category: Pre-1948
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord Image
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Megiddo
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Hanauer, James (John) Edward Image
Hanauer, James (John) Edward
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Kitchener, Horatio H. Image
Kitchener, Horatio H.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Wadi Al-ʿArabah
Lawrence, T.E. Image
Lawrence, T.E.
Category: Pre-1948
Mazar, Benjamin Image
Mazar, Benjamin
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Beth Shearim, Hebrew University
Historical Research Focus: Late Roman 70 AD – 324 AD
Petrie, William M. Flinders Image
Petrie, William M. Flinders
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel el Hesi, Besor
Historical Research Focus: Intermediate Bronze (IB) 2400 BC – 2000 BC
Material Composition: Ceramics
Tufnell, Olga Image
Tufnell, Olga
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel Lachish
Historical Research Focus: Babylonian/Persian 586 BC – 332 BC
Settlement Types: Town
Material Composition: Pottery
Warren, Charles Image
Warren, Charles
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Temple Mount
Alt, Albrecht
Alt, Albrecht Image
1883  –1956 In 1908 Alt was a scholarship holder of the German Protestant Institute of Archaeology of the Holy Land in Jerusalem and undertook his first Palestine journey. In the same year he became a supervisor of the theological College in Greifswald. In 1909 he wrote Israel und Aegypten (“Israel and Egypt”) as part of his doctorate at the University of Greifswald. He went to Jerusalem during the winter of 1921/22 to serve as head of the German Protestant Institute for Ancient Studies of the Holy Land (DEI) as well as to perform duties at the Redeemer Church. Works
  • 1929, The God of the fathers. A contribution to the prehistory of Israelite religion’.
  • 1954, The City State of Samaria.
  • 1954, A New View on the Origin of the Hyksos.
  • 1962, Essays on Old Testament history and religion; [English], R.A. Wilson, Oxford
  • 1934, Origins of Israelite Law
  • 1936, ‘Peoples And States Of Syria In Early Antiquity’.
  • 1949, Where Jesus Worked: Towns and Villages Of Galilee Studied With The Help Of Local History
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: German Protestant Institute of Archaeology
Bate, Dorothea
Bate, Dorothea Image
Dorothea Minola Alice Bate FGS (1878 –1951), also known as Dorothy Bate, was a British palaeontologist, a pioneer of archaeozoology. Her life’s work was to find fossils of recently extinct mammals with a view to understanding how and why giant and dwarf forms evolved. Career In 1898, at the age of nineteen, Bate got a job at the Natural History Museum in London, sorting bird skins in the Department of Zoology’s Bird Room and later preparing fossils.[5] She was probably the first woman to be employed as a scientist by the museum.[4] There she remained for fifty years and learned ornithologypalaeontologygeology and anatomy. She was a piece-worker, paid by the number of fossils she prepared.[1] In 1901 Bate published her first scientific paper, “A short account of a bone cave in the Carboniferous limestone of the Wye valley”, which appeared in the Geological Magazine, about bones of small Pleistocene mammals. The same year, she visited Cyprus, staying for 18 months at her own expense, to search for bones there, finding twelve new deposits in ossiferous caves, among them bones of Hippopotamus minor.[1] In 1902, with the benefit of a hard-won grant from the Royal Society, she discovered in a cave in the Kyrenia hills a new species of dwarf elephant, which she named Elephas cypriotes, later described in a paper for the Royal Society. While in Cyprus she also observed (and trapped, shot and skinned living mammals and birds and prepared a number of other papers, including descriptions of the Cyprus Spiny Mouse (Acomys nesiotes) and a subspecies of the Eurasian Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes cypriotes) She later undertook expeditions to many other Mediterranean islands, including CreteCorsicaSardiniaMalta, and the Balearic Islands, publishing work on their prehistoric fauna. In the Balearics in 1909, she discovered Myotragus balearicus, a previously unknown species of the subfamily Caprinae. On the plateau of Kat, in eastern Crete, she found remains of the Cretan dwarf hippopotamus.  In Crete, she got to know the archaeologists then excavating Knossos and other sites on the island, who were throwing light on the Minoan civilisation,[3] such as Arthur Evans. According to The Daily Telegraph  –
Her days were spent on foot or mule, traversing barren and bandit-infested terrains and sleeping in flea-ridden hovels and shacks. She would wade through turbulent swells to reach isolated cliff caves where she scuffled about, covered in mud and clay, never without her collecting bag, nets, insect boxes, hammer and – later – dynamite.
In the late 1920s Bate travelled to the British ruled Palestine. She was in her late 40s and well respected. Bates had been invited by Dorothy Garrod, who later became Cambridge University’s first female professor and who had been put in charge of an excavation in Haifa by the British military governor. In Bethlehem Bates and Elinor Wight Gardner discovered an extinct elephant species, an early horse and a prehistoric giant tortoise. They also discovered evidence that animals had been hunted by Bethlehem’s first human inhabitants.[10] In the 1930s Bate studied the animal bones Garrod had excavated in the Mount Carmel caves, which contained a succession of Upper Pleistocene levels. Instead of just inferring climatic conditions from the presence or absence of cold- or -warm loving animals, she was an early pioneer of the approach to take large samples of fauna of a succession of archaeological strata. These provided a series of plots. Bate worked on the basis that alterations in the frequency of species of animal hunted by early man reflected naturally occurring changes.[11] This work made her an early pioneer of archaeozoology, especially in the field of climatic interpretation. Bate also worked alongside the archaeologist Professor Dorothy Garrod in the Caves of Nahal Me’arot, where excavations had commenced in 1928. She was the first to study the faunas of the area, her stated research aim being the reconstruction of the natural history of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) fauna of the Levant region. Being aware of the fossils and the numerous human occupations her study of the Carmel Caves was pioneering. She described several new species, and identified several species that had previously not been known to have existed in this area in the Pleistocene. She constructed one of the first quantitative curves of faunal succession, and in reference to ancient climate she identified a faunal break between primitive and modern mammal communities during the Middle of the Ice Age. Bate identified the shifts from deer to gazelle dominance as rooted in changes of regional vegetation and paleoclimates. She was also the first to identify a Canis familiaris to have lived in the Ice Age, based on a skull that had been found. Decades later more remains of Natufian dogs were found. Her pioneering research was published in 1937,  when Bate and Garrod published The Stone Age of Mount Carmel volume 1, part 2: Palaeontology, the Fossil Fauna of the Wady el-Mughara Caves, interpreting the Mount Carmel excavations. Among other finds, they reported remains of the hippopotamus.
Category: Pre-1948
Historical Research Focus: Early Paleolithic 150000 BC – 80000 BC
Bliss, Frederick J.
Bliss, Frederick J. Image
Frederick J. Bliss, 1859-1937
Frederick J. Bliss was the son of the Rev. Daniel Bliss, founder of the Syrian Protestant College, now the American University of Beirut. Educated in Lebanon and New England, he carried out independent researches in Syria between 1888 and 1890. In 1890 he was asked by the Palestine Exploration Fund to continue the excavations begun by Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Hesy (now transcribed Tell el-Hesi). After a brief training under Petrie at Meydum in Egypt, he began two years work at Tell el-Hesi. Using Petrie’s ceramic sequence and the pioneering concept of a sequence of ‘cities’, Bliss was able to establish not only the archaeology of this specific site, but the sequential framework for Levantine archaeology. Following his success at Tell el-Hesi, Bliss continued the work of the Fund in Jerusalem in 1894-1897, where he was assisted by the young Archibald Dickie, later to be Professor of Architecture at Liverpool University. Together they made one of the most important contributions to understanding the archaeology of the city. The Fund then turned its attention to the towns of the Shephelah, and Bliss, now assisted by R.A.S. Macalister, carried out serveral seasons work at Tell Zakariya (Biblical ‘Azekah), Tell el-Safi, Tell el-Judeidah, and Tell Sandahanna (Classical Marisa/Mareshah). Bliss and Macalister presented their results which set the standard for future excavation reports in Levantine archaeology in the future.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Material Composition: Pottery
Clerment-Ganneau, Charles Simon
Clerment-Ganneau, Charles Simon Image

Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau (19 February 1846 – 15 February 1923) was a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.

Biography

Clermont-Ganneau was born in Paris, son of a sculptor of some repute. After an education at the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, he entered the diplomatic service as dragoman to the consulate at Jerusalem, and afterwards at Constantinople. He laid the foundation of his reputation by his involvement with stele of Mesha (Moabite Stone), which bears the oldest Semitic inscription known.

In 1871, Clermont-Ganneau identified the biblical city of Gezer (Joshua 16:11) with that of Abu Shusha, formerly known as Tell el Jezer. In the same year he discovered the Temple Warning inscription in Jerusalem. In 1874 he was employed by the British government to take charge of an archaeological expion to Palestine. Among his discoveries there was the rock-cut tomb of the Biblical Shebna. He explored/discovered many tombs in Wady Yasul, a valley immediately south of Jerusalem, which he claimed served as an auxiliary cemetery for Jerusalem at some ancient period(s). Based on geographic and linguistic evidence he theorized that this valley was Azal mentioned in Zechariah 14:5 in the Bible.[3] He was the first to make archeological soundings at Emmaus-Nicopolis. He was subsequently entrusted by his own government with similar missions to Syria and the Red Sea. He was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1875. After serving as vice-consul at Jaffa from 1880 to 1882, he returned to Paris as secrétaire interpréte for oriental languages, and in 1886 was appointed consul of the first class. He subsequently accepted the post of diiector of the École des Langues Orientales and professor at the Collège de France.

In 1889 he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, of which he had been a correspondent since 1880. In 1896 he was promoted to be consul-general, and was minister plenipotentiary in 1906.

Crusades against archaeological forgeries

In 1873, after the Jerusalem antiquities dealer Moses Wilhelm Shapira offered a set of Moabite artifacts (known as the Shapira Collection) for sale, Clermont-Ganneau attacked the collection as a forgery. In 1883, Shapira offered the so-called Shapira Strips, fragments of ancient parchment allegedly found near the Dead Sea, for sale to the British Museum, which exhibited two of the strips. Clermont-Ganneau attended the exhibition, and was the first person in England to attack their authenticity. In 1903 he took a prominent part in the investigation of the so-called Tiara of Saitaferne. This tiara had been purchased by the Louvre for 200,000 francs, and exhibited as a genuine antique. Much discussion arose as to the perpetrators of the fraud, some believing that it came from southern Russia. It was agreed, however, that the whole object, except perhaps the band round the tiara, was of modern manufacture.

Category: Pre-1948
Crowfoot, John Winter
Crowfoot, John Winter Image
John Winter Crowfoot, 1873-1959
After a long career as an educator in the Middle East, Crowfoot in 1926 succeeded Professor John Garstang as Director of the British School of Archaeology (BSAJ) in Jerusalem. Under Garstang, the BSAJ and the Department of Antiquities of Palestine had been jointly run and the BSAJ had received a Treasury grant. In 1926 the two were separated and the School lost its grant, as well as its headquarters building. Crowfoot overcame these difficulties by establishing a close collaboration with the American School of Oriental Research, which had just built its own new headquarters. There, the library of the BSAJ was housed and the Crowfoots and the students of the BSAJ found a hospitable welcome. Thereafter, Crowfoot began a major programme of excavations, beginning with the PEF excavations on the Hill of Ophel in Jerusalem in 1927. This was followed by the Joint BSAJ Yale University Excavations at Jerash/Gerasa in 1928-1930, and the Joint BSAJ, Harvard University, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Palestine Exploration Fund excavations at Samaria-Sebaste from 1931-1935. During the first of these excavations, on 11 July 1927, while work was being carried out at a depth of 15.24 m, an extremely powerful earthquake shook the sides of the trench, but only dislodged a few pebbles on to the excavators. Crowfoot’s work in this period was of the greatest importance for Levantine archaeology, with major contributions to the understanding of the Iron Age ceramic sequence, the eastern terra sigillata, and pioneering work on early churches. He retired as Director of the BSAJ in late 1935. He continued to be active in the field, however, with the final reports of the work he had directed at Samaria-Sebaste, the final volume of which was published shortly after his death. On his return to Britain, Crowfoot became Chairman of the Palestine Exploration Fund from 1945 to 1950. From 1951-1953 he was Chairman of the Council of the revived BSAJ, and from 1953, until his death, its President.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Sebastiya
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Building Types: Church
Material Composition: Ceramics
De Saulcy, F.
De Saulcy, F. Image
He studied at the École Polytechnique and the School of Application of Artillery and Engineering in Metz , where he then became a professor of mechanics. Having stood out for his research in numismatics, he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions and Fine Letters in 1842. Settled in Paris, he was appointed curator of the Paris Artillery Museum . In 1845 and 1850, he traveled to the Mediterranean countries, to Turkey and Egypt , then to Palestine and Syria , where he carried out archaeological excavations. Invited on April 4, 1856 by Augustin Louis Cauchy and Charles Lenormant to the 1 st meeting which laid the foundations for the foundation of the Work of Eastern Schools, better known today under the name of The Work of Orient. He was even a member of his 1st General Council of April 25 of the same year. He became friends with Louis Napoléon, who appointed him senator in 1859. He was chairman of the Map of Gaul commission in 1862. After another trip to Palestine in 1863, he went into exile in England with the imperial family in 1870. Back in France, he continued his work until his death at the age of 73.
Category: Pre-1948
Garstang, John
Garstang, John Image
Professor John Garstang, 1876-1956
Garstang was the founding Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (now the Kenyon Institute) in 1920. In that same year, he made what is probably his most lasting contribution to archaeology by becoming the founding Director of the British Mandatory Department of Antiquities of Palestine, a post he held until 1926. In that capacity he drafted the country’s antiquities laws, which were notably liberal, enlightened, and practical. Garstang used the material belonging to the Ottoman Palestine Museum as the basis of the collection for the Palestine Museum in Jerusalem, now the Rockefeller Museum. He carried out the first post-World War I excavations in Palestine at Ashkelon, followed by a series of soundings at sites across the country. In 1922, at a historic meeting with W. F. Albright of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem and L-H Vincent of the École Biblique et Archéologique Française, Garstang formulated the terminology still used for the classification of the archaeological material of the southern Levant. From 1930 to 1936 he carried out a major excavation at Jericho, funded by Sir Charles Marston. Although this excavation was poorly published, and although Garstang’s views of Jericho regarding the accounts in Exodus and regarding the Israelite conquest are no longer accepted, his work there provided the first information about the existence of an aceramic Neolithic culture.
Category: Pre-1948
Grove, George
Grove, George Image
Sir George Grove, 1820-1900 In 1852 Grove was asked by Dean Stanley to compile a ‘Vocabulary of Hebrew Topographical Words’ for his book, Sinai and Palestine. The research which he undertook for this work convinced him that far too little was known of the geography of the Holy Land, and the need for a detailed modern map and accurate description of the country. However, he found very little support for the foundation of a society to carry out this work. As a result of his work on Hebrew place names, he was asked to write a number of articles for Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, which appeared in 1863. In 1858 he made his first trip to Palestine, which increased his enthusiasm for his work on the subject of Biblical toponymy. The foundation of the Palestine Exploration Fund was primarily due to Grove’s active campaigning. Through his efforts the founding Committee included such luminaries as the Dukes of Argyll, and Devonshire and the Earls of Derby and Shaftesbury and Earl Russell, the Archbishop of York amongst other distinguished clergy, A.H. Layard, M.P., Sir Henry Rawlinson, Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, from the world of science and scholarship, Dr. William Smith, W. Spottiswood, and John Murray from the world of publishing. Additionally, Grove was able to gain the support of Sir Moses Montefiore, perhaps the most important public figure in the Anglo-Jewish community of the day, on the basis that this was a purely non-sectarian scientific society dedicated to the study of the shared Judaeao-Christian heritage. From the foundation of the Fund until 23 July 1866 Grove was Honorary Secretary of the Fund.
Category: Pre-1948
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord Image
Lt. Col. Philip Langstaffe Ord Guy, 1885-1952
In 1922 Guy became Chief Inspector for the Palestine Department of Antiquities under the direction of John Garstang.  Based in Haifa, he worked mainly in northern Palestine where he surveyed and attempted to stem the destruction of archaeological sites.   He also conducted excavations of several Iron Age tombs near Tell Abu Hawam. In 1927, Guy left the Department of Antiquities to become the director of the University of Chicago Expedition to Megiddo.  He is best known for his innovative use of balloon photography at the site, and for his interpretation of the ‘stables’ of Stratum IV which he assigned to the Solomonic era (tenth century BC) following Biblical passages (e.g. I Kings 9:15). Guy’s evocative interpretations were followed for several decades, and are now used as a cautionary example of how the Bible can be misused in archaeological interpretation; (the stables have been recently redated to the eighth century BC). Leaving Megiddo in 1934 under controversial circumstances, Guy was subsequently appointed as Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (1935-1939).  Following a suggestion by Sir Charles Close, then Chairman of the Palestine Exploration Fund, Guy was to initiate a new Archaeological Survey of Palestine (the ASP) as a joint project of the British School and the Fund.  Guy saw this new project as the inheritor of the Fund’s original Survey of Western Palestine conducted over sixty years earlier (PEQ 69, 1937).  Despite the ASP’s lofty ambitions, the survey was curtailed by the Arab Revolt, which disrupted much archaeological work in Palestine.  He was still able to conduct some work in the southern coastal area and southern desert, including rescue excavations at Tell Qudadi, and building surveys at Latrun, Ramleh, and Jisr Jindas.  Guy’s work on the ASP remains largely unpublished.  His field notes, photographs and plans are held in the PEF’s archives and await future reassessment. During World War II, Guy reached the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and was a military governor in Libya and Eritrea.  After Israel’s War of Independence in 1948, Guy stayed in Israel and became a senior figure within the fledgling Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums as Director of Excavations and Surveys.  In his final years, Guy remained actively engaged in fieldwork at Jaffa, Ayyelet Hashahar, and Khirbet al-Kerak (Bet Yerah).  He never retired, and died in 1952 following an illness.  He is buried in the Alliance Church International Cemetery in Jerusalem.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Megiddo
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Hanauer, James (John) Edward
Hanauer, James (John) Edward Image
Canon James (John) Edward Hanauer, 1850-1938
J.E. Hanauer was born in Jaffa, and raised and educated in Jerusalem. His first link with the PEF was in 1867 when, as a seventeen year old, he participated in Charles Warren’s excavations in Jerusalem in a temporary position in charge of the stores of the expedition. Later, Warren, who referred to him in his publications as “Edward Hanour”, took him along on a trip to central Transjordan during July-August 1867, as interpreter and also as assistant-photographer to Sergeant Henry Phillips (see below). Hanauer is clearly visible in a number of Phillip’s photographs taken at the Hellenistic site of Araq al-Amir. Hanauer became an avid photographer, taking numerous photographs, especially of Jerusalem and its antiquities. In 1902 the PEF acquired a camera for Hanauer. Prints of many of his photographs were sent to the Fund with his letters and reports, among them photographs of antiquities uncovered in the area of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Muristan, of sections of the ancient aqueduct which brought water to Jerusalem, and of a series of ‘racial type’ portraits showing the local inhabitants of the city, Jews, Moslems, Christians, Bedouin and Gypsies. Many of his photographs were used to illustrate his book Walks about Jerusalem, which was published in 1910 and went into a number of editions. Hanauer’s brother also took photographs in 1891 (n.4), as well as his eldest son in 1902 (n.5). A very large archive of Hanauer’s letters, reports, sketches, transcriptions of inscriptions, dating from the years 1889 to 1911, exist in the PEF (n.6). His letters are particularly interesting as they are an extremely informative record of daily events in Jerusalem.   Hanauer began contributing articles on a regular basis to the Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement from as early as 1881, dealing particularly with explorations in the vicinity of Jerusalem and with matters of local folklore (see also Hanauer 1907). The PEF also published Hanauer’s booklet Table of the Christian and Mohammedan Eras (1904). Hanauer’s contributions were substantially reduced in number with the outbreak of the First World War.  Hanauer died at the age of eighty-eight at his home in Jerusalem on 15th June 1938. His memoirs entitled Rambles in My Fatherland 1867-1874 remain unpublished and are kept in the archives of the Church’s Ministry among the Jewish people.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Kitchener, Horatio H.
Kitchener, Horatio H. Image
Lt. Horatio H. Kitchener, R.E., 1850-1916
In 1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder, on the Survey of Western Palestine. During 1874 and 1875, along with their team of Royal Engineers N.C.O.s and enlisted men, they surveyed large areas of the country. In 1875 the Survey Party was attacked near Safed and both officers were badly injured. When the attackers had been apprehended and dealt with by the Ottoman court, the Survey was resumed. However, Conder was still not fully recovered, so Kitchener took over command and completed the Survey in 1877. In 1883, he took part in the Survey of the Wady Arabah and northeastern Sinai with Professor Edward Hull, on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Kitchener later sent a team led by Captain Stewart Newcombe, R.E. to produce an accurate map of the Sinai Peninsula. When this task was completed there was only one portion of this (near Suez Canal) region which remained unmapped, the Negev. Kitchener turned to the Palestine Exploration Fund, and requested them to apply for permission to carry out this work. Permission being obtained, the mapping was carried out by Newcombe, while an archaeological survey was conducted by two young archaeologists on leave from the British Museum’s excavations at Carchemish, C.L. Woolley and T.E. Lawrence.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Wadi Al-ʿArabah
Lawrence, T.E.
Lawrence, T.E. Image
Lt. Col. T.E. Lawrence (‘Lawrence of Arabia’), C.B., D.S.O., 1888-1935
After university, with the help of his Oxford mentor,  D.G. Hogarth (Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum and member of the PEF Committee) Lawrence became an archaeologist and spent several seasons (1910-14) working with Leonard Woolley on the British Museum excavations at the Neo-Hittite site of Carchemish near Jerablus in North Syria (now on the Turkish/Syrian border). In early 1914 Woolley and Lawrence, at the request of the British Museum, accompanied a survey party making maps in the Sinai Desert. While Lawrence undertook an archaeological survey (which he described as providing ‘archaeological colour to a political job’ as permission was required from the Turks who controlled this area) the topographical work was carried out by Captain Newcombe who later worked with Lawrence during the Arab Revolt.  This survey, sponsored by the PEF, was tasked with extending southwards the previous PEF Survey of Western Palestine carried out in the 1870s. The 1914 survey (published by Woolley and Lawrence as The Wilderness of Zin, PEF Annual III, 1915) later greatly assisted Lawrence because of the surveying and map-making skills he learnt and also the first-hand knowledge he gained of the terrain, especially in the Aqaba area.
Category: Pre-1948
Mazar, Benjamin
Mazar, Benjamin Image
Considered the Dean of Israeli Biblical Archaeology. Mazar was born in CiechanowiecPoland, then part of the Russian Empire. He was educated at Berlin and Giessen universities in Germany. At the age of 23, he immigrated to Mandatory Palestine and in 1943 joined the faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, whose original campus at Mount Scopus was an enclave in the Jordanian sector of Jerusalem following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Archaeological Career
In 1936 Mazar started the excavations of Beth Shearim, the first archaeological excavation organized by a Jewish institution, and uncovered there the large Jewish catacombs dated to the 2nd-4th centuries CE, known as the burial place of the Jewish leader Rabbi Yehudah Hanasi, the compiler of the Mishnah. In 1948 he was the first archaeologist to receive a permit to dig in the new State of Israel, and explored the Philistine town of Tell Qasile in northern Tel Aviv. He later conducted excavations at Ein Gedi and between 1968 and 1978 directed the excavations south and south-west of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, including an area he described as the Ophel,[1] uncovering extensive remains from the Iron Age through the Second Temple period and to Jerusalem’s Islamic period.
Tomb of Himyarites
In 1937, Benjamin Mazar revealed at Beit She’arim a system of tombs belonging to the Jews of Ḥimyar (now southern Yemen) dating back to the 3rd century CE.[2] The strength of ties between Yemenite Jewry and the Land of Israel can be learnt, of course, by the system of tombs at Beit She’arim dating back to the 3rd century. It is of great significance that Jews from Ḥimyar were being buried in what was then considered a prestigious place, near the tombs of the Sanhedrin. Those who had the financial means brought their dead to be buried in the Land of Israel, as it was considered an outstanding virtue for Jews not to be buried in foreign lands, but rather in the land of their forefathers. It is speculated that the Ḥimyarites, during their lifetime, were known and respected in the eyes of those who dwelt in the Land of Israel, seeing that one of them, whose name was Menaḥem, was coined the epithet qyl ḥmyr [prince of Ḥimyar], in the eight-character Ḥimyari ligature, while in the Greek inscription he was called Menae presbyteros (Menaḥem, the community’s elder).[3] The name of a woman in Greek letters, in its genitive form, Ενλογιαζ, was also engraved there, meaning either ‘virtue’, ‘blessing’, or ‘gratis’.[
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Beth Shearim, Hebrew University
Historical Research Focus: Late Roman 70 AD – 324 AD
Petrie, William M. Flinders
Petrie, William M. Flinders Image
Sir William M. Flinders Petrie, 1853-1942

Petrie went to Egypt in 1880 to survey the pyramids of Gizeh and thereafter dedicated himself to the archaeology of Egypt. With two brief exceptions, he spent the rest of his career studying it. These brief exceptions were the periods he spent excavating in Palestine.

Although these interludes were brief, they were highly significant for Levantine archaeology. The first interlude was a six-week season of excavations at Tell el-Hesy (now transcribed as Tell el-Hesi) in the spring of 1890. During this short period he introduced into Palestine the concept that a tell is a manmade mound of successive, superimposed ‘cities’. He established the dating of these ‘cities’ by means of their associated ceramic assemblage and of the cross-dating of these assemblages with reference to similar finds made in Egyptian contexts. Having thus laid the foundation for all future work in Levantine archaeology, he returned to Egypt, where he excavated for the next thirty years.

His second period in Palestine, 1927-1942, was at the end of his career. At this time he investigated ‘Egypt over the Border’, the frontier sites between Egypt and Canaan. He excavated a series of sites on the lower reaches of the Wadi Ghazzeh, Tell Jemmeh, Tell Far’a, Tell Ajjul, and Sheikh Zowayd. These sites revealed remains dating from the Chalcolithic to the Hellenistic periods.

Petrie’s most significant contribution to archaeology was in 1899 when he developed and applied a method of statistical analysis to the material from the prehistoric cemeteries at Naqada, Hu (Diospolis Parva), and Abadiya. Such methods were not applied again until the 1970s, at which time sophisticated computer programs were used, where Petrie had used slips of card.

Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel el Hesi, Besor
Historical Research Focus: Intermediate Bronze (IB) 2400 BC – 2000 BC
Material Composition: Ceramics
Schumacher, Gottlieb
Schumacher, Gottlieb Image
Gottlieb Schumacher, 1857-1925
Schumacher was born in Zanesville, Ohio, to which his father, Jakob, architect, engineer and member of the Templegesellschaft (“Temple Association”), a Swabian protestant pietest sect, had emigrated from Tuebingen. When the leaders of the group began to carry out their plan to colonise Palestine in the late 1860’s, the Schumacher family settled in Haifa, where Jakob designed most of the German Colony, as well as many buildings for the various Christian communities of the Galilee. Gottlieb completed his secondary education in Haifa, and studied engineering in Stuttgart from 1876-1881. Following the completion of his studies he returned to Haifa, where he quickly became a leading figure in the construction of roads and houses. He was appointed Chief Engineer for the Province of Akko by the Ottoman government. Among his many buildings are the Scottish hostels of Safed and Tiberias, the Russian hostel in Nazareth, the wine cellars for the Rothschild’s winery at Rishon Lezion, and the bridge over the River Kishon. One of his most important projects was the survey of the Golan, Hauran, and the Ajlun districts, in preparation for the construction of the Damascus-Haifa railway, which branched off from the Hejaz Railway at Deraa. As part of the same development he also extended the mole of the port of Haifa. In the course of this survey he produced the first accurate maps of these regions, along with detailed descriptions of the archaeological remains and the contemporary villages. From 1886 he published a series of articles in the Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins reporting his discoveries, articles which appeared in translation in the Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement. He published a series of books, also translated into English and published by the Fund. From 1903 to 1905 Schumacher carried out excavations at Tell el-Mutesellim, the ancient city of Megiddo. In 1908 the first of two volumes of his report was published, covering the stratigraphy and the architecture (the second, consisting of a study of the small finds was published by Carl Watzinger in 1929). His approach to excavation was, in keeping with that of the majority of his contemporaries, based on the careful clearance of architectural horizons, rather than the dissection of layers of earth, however, by the standards of the day the work was carefully recorded, and his report is illustrated with a wealth of photographs of the excavated areas, and even simple, but beautifully drawn, sections, both a main section running across the site from north to south and smaller ones to illustrate detailed stratigraphic points. His main excavated area consisted of a trench 20 m-25 m side running north-south through the centre of the mound, in which he identified eight strata, numbered from bottom to top, most of which may be dated, according to the pottery found in them to the Middle Bronze II-Iron II periods. A number of important buildings were excavated, including part of the Early Bronze Age palace from Stratum XII (of the Chicago excavations, an Iron II A palace on the south side of the tell, called building 1723 by the University of Chicago excavators, from which he recovered a seal with a beautifully depicted lion and the words “Shema’ servant of Jereboam”. In his Stratum IV he found corbel vaulted tombs with no parallels in the southern Levant. With the outbreak of World War I the Templar community returned to Germany, where Schumacher remained until 1924, when he returned to his home on the Carmel, where he died in 1925.
Category: Pre-1948
Stanley, Arthur P.
Stanley, Arthur P. Image
The Very Reverend Arthur P. Stanley, Dean of Westminster, 1815-1881
In 1852 Stanley travelled to Egypt and Palestine, and produced a best-selling account of his observations, Sinai and Palestine in Connection with Their History, which is still being reprinted. Stanley was a particularly enlightened and progressive clergyman who questioned the literal truth of the creation in the Book of Genesis. It is interesting to note that he enjoyed a life-long friendship with T.H. Huxley, a follower of Darwin. He persuaded Mr. (later Sir) George Grove, to produce a 53-page Vocabulary of Hebrew Topographical Words. From this exercise Stanley and Grove became convinced that there was a great need for further work on the topography of the Holy Land and the identification on the ground of the place-names in the Bible. At the time, however, there was very little support for the foundation of a society to carry out the work. In 1862, Stanley again travelled to Palestine, this time accompanying the Prince of Wales on his tour of the East.
Category: Pre-1948
Starkey, James Leslie
Starkey, James Leslie Image
James Leslie Starkey, F.S.A., 1895-1938
When the British School of Archaeology in Egypt transferred their work to Palestine in 1926, Starkey rejoined Flinders Petrie as his first assistant at Tell Jemmeh, near Gaza, applying his experience with workmen in Egypt to the newly-engaged and untrained Bedouin.  At Tell el Far‘ah (South), Starkey was in charge for the final season. He also assisted Petrie at Tell el-‘Ajjul. In 1932 Starkey left Petrie to lead his own expedition, briefly in conjunction with Harris Dunscombe Colt Jr., and financed by Sir Henry Wellcome, Sir Charles Marston and Sir Robert Mond (forming the Wellcome-Marston Research Expedition to the Near East).  The chosen site was Tell ed-Duweir, identified as Biblical Lachish, an important city of the Kingdom of Judah.  Findings at this site furthered great interest in Biblical archaeology at the time (although it was not Starkey’s primary interest).  Major findings included the Fosse Temple of the Late Bronze Age, the  ‘great shaft’, outer revetment wall, city gates, and residencies from the Judaean Kingdom period, and the ‘Solar Shrine’ of the Persian to Hellenistic periods. Due to his painstaking methods, the discovery of the ‘Lachish Letters’ – a series of ostraca with Hebrew script written shortly before the Babylonian conquest of 586/7 BC – amply fulfilled the expectations of his supporters. In January 1938, at the age of 43, Starkey’s career was tragically cut short.  His good relations with the workmen and people from the surrounding villages were well known, so it came as a great shock when he was murdered by a group of Arab militants en route to the opening of the new Palestine Archaeological Museum in Jerusalem.  He was buried in the Protestant cemetery on Mount Zion, Jerusalem. Starkey had been a member of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
Category: Pre-1948
Tufnell, Olga
Tufnell, Olga Image
Olga Tufnell, 1905-1985
In 1927 Professor Petrie invited Tuffnel to join his expedition at Qau, Egypt, where they copied reliefs in the tombs of the local nomarchs, she went on with some of the party to join the main expedition of the season at Tell Far’a on the Wadi Ghuzzeh (Wadi Besor), under the direction of J.L. Starkey. Thus began her life-long commitment to the archaeology of Palestine. She soon learnt enough Arabic to supervise her small team of Bedouin workmen in the cemetery area.When Petrie came out for the second season he was impressed by her competence at recording and encouraged her to publish under her own name. When in 1931 they moved to Tell el-‘Ajjul, she again found herself digging tombs, and was lucky enough to find one of the most sensational: a Hyksos burial with an equid (perhaps a horse). In 1932 Starkey and several of Petrie’s other young assistants decided to leave ‘the Prof’ and begin their own excavations at Tell ed-Duweir. Tufnell joined Starkey and the others. In six seasons of work they revealed one of the most important towns of the Judaean kingdom, and recovered one of the most exciting groups of ancient texts, the ‘Lachish Letters‘, written to the commander of the garrison at Lachish shortly before it fell to the Babylonians in either 589 or 586 B.C. In addition, the excavation provided a wealth of well-stratified pottery, which forms a key part of the ceramic corpus of Palestine.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel Lachish
Historical Research Focus: Babylonian/Persian 586 BC – 332 BC
Settlement Types: Town
Material Composition: Pottery
Warren, Charles
Warren, Charles Image
General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., R.E., 1840-1927
Born in 1840, Charles Warren was educated at Cheltenham College, from which he proceeded to Sandhurst and Woolwich. He was gazetted in 1857 in the Royal Engineers, was given his company in 1869, and six years later became Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel. Between 1867 and 1870 Captain Warren carried out the explorations in Palestine which form the basis for our knowledge of the topography of ancient Jerusalem and the archaeology of the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sherif. This first major expedition of the Fund, in addition to the information it provided concerning Jerusalem, served to raise the public interest in the work of the Fund sufficiently such that £60,000 was raised by public subscription to carry out the great Survey of Western Palestine. In addition to his explorations on, under, and around the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sherif, Warren surveyed the Plain of Philistia and carried out a very important reconnaissance of central Jordan.
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Temple Mount
Wilson, Charles William
Wilson, Charles William Image
Major General Sir Charles William Wilson, 1836-1905
In 1864, at the instigation of George Grove, Baroness Angela Burdett Coutts helped finance the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem. Volunteers were called for from the Royal Engineers to carry out the work and Wilson was selected. The aim of the work was to lay the basis for the improvement of the water supply of Jerusalem, which at the time was severely polluted. In addition to producing a topographical map of the city and its immediate environs, in 1865 the survey party carried out a series of levels from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, which established the relative levels of the two bodies for the first time. While Wilson was still in Palestine engaged on the Survey, the Palestine Exploration Fund was founded. On Wilson’s return to England, the PEF Committee engaged him to carry out a ‘feasibility study’ for proposed Survey of Western Palestine and to identify suitable sites for future exploration. In November 1865, Wilson and his party landed in Beirut and surveyed their way south to Palestine, planning the Great Mosque of Damascus along the way. From January to April 1866, Wilson carried out reconnaissance and survey work in Palestine, paying particular attention to the archaeology and ancient synagogues of the region. In the same year, Wilson was appointed to the Ordnance Survey of Scotland and, in 1867, acted as Assistant Commissioner on the Borough Boundary Commission. In this year, also, he became a member of the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. In 1868, he volunteered to take part in the Ordnance Survey of Sinai, along with Capt. H.S. Palmer. The report of their work contains Wilson’s chapters on the route of the Israelites and the prehistoric and Byzantine archaeology of the region. In recognition of Wilson’s work in Jerusalem, he was awarded the Diploma of the International Geographical Congress in 1871. In 1872, he was elected to the Council of the Society of British Archaeology and in 1874 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Category: Pre-1948
Alt, Albrecht Image
Alt, Albrecht
1883  –1956 In 1908 Alt was a scholarship holder of the German Protestant Institute of Archaeo… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: German Protestant Institute of Archaeology
Bate, Dorothea Image
Bate, Dorothea
Dorothea Minola Alice Bate FGS (1878 –1951), also known as Dorothy Bate, was a British … Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Historical Research Focus: Early Paleolithic 150000 BC – 80000 BC
Bliss, Frederick J. Image
Bliss, Frederick J.
Frederick J. Bliss, 1859-1937 Frederick J. Bliss was the son of the Rev. Daniel Bliss, founder of the Syrian Protestant College, now the American University… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Material Composition: Pottery
Clerment-Ganneau, Charles Simon Image
Clerment-Ganneau, Charles Simon
Charles Simon Clermont-Ga… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Crowfoot, John Winter Image
Crowfoot, John Winter
John Winter Crowfoot, 1873-1959 After a long career as an educator in the Middle East, Crowfoot in 1926 succeeded Professor John Garstang as Director of … Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Sebastiya
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Building Types: Church
Material Composition: Ceramics
De Saulcy, F. Image
De Saulcy, F.
He studied at the École Polytechnique and the School of Application of Artillery and Engineering in Metz , where he then became a professor of mechanics. Having stood out for his research in numismatics, he was elected a member of the Acad… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Garstang, John Image
Garstang, John
Professor John Garstang, 1876-1956 Garstang was the founding Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (now the Kenyon Institute) in … Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Grove, George Image
Grove, George
Sir George Grove, 1820-1900 In 1852 Grove was asked by Dean Stanley to compile a ‘Vocabulary of Hebrew Topographical Words’ for his book, Sinai and Palestine. The research wh… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord Image
Guy, Philip Langstaffe Ord
Lt. Col. Philip Langstaffe Ord Guy, 1885-1952 In 1922 Guy became Chief Inspector for the Palestine Department of Antiquities under the direct… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Megiddo
Historical Research Focus: Late Bronze (LB) 1500 BC – 1200 BC
Hanauer, James (John) Edward Image
Hanauer, James (John) Edward
Canon James (John) Edward Hanauer, 1850-1938 J.E. Hanauer was born in Jaffa, and raised and educated in Jerusalem. His first link with the PEF… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund
Kitchener, Horatio H. Image
Kitchener, Horatio H.
Lt. Horatio H. Kitchener, R.E., 1850-1916 In 1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder, on the Survey of Western Pale… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Wadi Al-ʿArabah
Lawrence, T.E. Image
Lawrence, T.E.
Lt. Col. T.E. Lawrence (‘Lawrence of Arabia’), C.B., D.S.O., 1888-1935 After university, with the help of his Oxford mentor,?… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Mazar, Benjamin Image
Mazar, Benjamin
Considered the Dean of Israeli Biblical Archaeology. Mazar was born in Ciechanowiec, Poland, th… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: Beth Shearim, Hebrew University
Historical Research Focus: Late Roman 70 AD – 324 AD
Petrie, William M. Flinders Image
Petrie, William M. Flinders
Sir William M. Flinders Petrie, 1853-1942 … Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel el Hesi, Besor
Historical Research Focus: Intermediate Bronze (IB) 2400 BC – 2000 BC
Material Composition: Ceramics
Schumacher, Gottlieb Image
Schumacher, Gottlieb
Gottlieb Schumacher, 1857-1925 Schumacher was born in Zanesville, Ohio, to which his father, Jakob, architect, engineer and member of the Templegesellschaft (“Te… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Stanley, Arthur P. Image
Stanley, Arthur P.
The Very Reverend Arthur P. Stanley, Dean of Westminster, 1815-1881 In 1852 Stanley travelled to Egypt and Palestine, and produced a best-selling account of his observations, … Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Starkey, James Leslie Image
Starkey, James Leslie
James Leslie Starkey, F.S.A., 1895-1938 When the British School of Archaeology in Egypt transferred their work to Palestine in 1926, Starkey rejoined Fli… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tufnell, Olga Image
Tufnell, Olga
Olga Tufnell, 1905-1985 In 1927 Professor Petrie invited Tuffnel to join his expedition at Qau, Egypt, where they copied reliefs in the tombs of the local nomarchs, she went on with some of the party to join the main expedition of… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Tel Lachish
Historical Research Focus: Babylonian/Persian 586 BC – 332 BC
Settlement Types: Town
Material Composition: Pottery
Warren, Charles Image
Warren, Charles
General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., R.E., 1840-1927 Born in 1840, Charles Warren was educated at Cheltenham College, from which h… Read More
Category: Pre-1948
Tags: The Palestine Exploration Fund, Temple Mount
Wilson, Charles William Image
Wilson, Charles William
Major General Sir Charles William Wilson, 1836-1905 In 1864, at the instigation of George Grove, Baroness Angela Burdett Coutts helpe… Read More
Category: Pre-1948